Hardware

The circuit diagrams are available at the Open-It page for Kalliope after registration.

Kalliope Digital board

Kalliope digital board is a 80 mm x 100 mm bare print circuit board (PCB). The catalog number in GND Ltd. is: GN1078-3.

Detailed Specifications

  • Input ports
    • 32 channel of single-end inputs and 6 channel of control lines (Hirose FX2-80S-1.27DSL x 1).
    • Supports LVTTL etc (direct inputs to Spartan-6 IO ports).
    • 1 port of NIM input.
  • Output ports
    • 8 channel test pins from FPGA (not used).
  • Communication interface
    • SFP slot for GbE (1000Base-Tx or 1000Base-SX) transceiver.
    • Either metal or fiber connection is possible by selecting an SFP module.
  • FPGA
    • Xilinx Spartan-6 (XC6SLX100T-2FGG484C)
  • Configuration memory chips (EEPROM)
    • SPI flash in 3.3V (XCF16PFSG48C -> xcf32p)
    • SPI (synchronous serial interface) in serial configuration mode
  • Clock source
    • 50 MHz LVCMOS (~50 ppm)
      • Peak-To-Peak jitter 1ps
  • Power supply
    • DC voltage passed to the analog board (+5V).
    • DC +5 V
    • DC +1.8 V
    • AC/DC adapter (Tsuji-Denshi T3714-01) drives two Volume2014-sets or three Volume2012-sets.
  • Power consumption
    • static: 300 mA @3.3 V and 600 mA @1.8 V (mainly at FPGA)
    • dynamic: depends on the hit rate ?

A picture of Kalliope digital board and the dimensions are shown below.

kalliope-d-photo
Figure 1: Picture of Kalliope digital board. MAC address is written on the flat panel.
kalliope-d-dimension
Figure 2: Dimensions of Kalliope digital board.
Signal I/O (J1)
Accommordates 32-channel signal inputs, 6-channel control lines and a power suply to/from the analog board. The connector is a half-pitch 80 poles (Hirose FX2-80P-1.27DSL). The channel assignment is 31-16 (15-0) to the even numbers of A2-A32 (B2-B32) of the connector. Odd numbers in A&B1-31 are the signal grounds. The six lines A&B 34,36,38 are reserved for the control lines, and A&B 40 are the power line to the analog board (+5V). The inputs and control lines are single-ended, supporting LVTTL2.5 or 3.3.
NIM IN (J3)
1 intput of NIM level, usually used for the NIM-in trigger = TDCstart.
Ethernet connection (LAN)
SFP ethernet transceiver housing. Gigabit Ethernet transceiver 1000Base-Tx (metal) or 1000Base-SX (fiber) is plugged in for communications between PC and the board via SiTCP. Some of the confirmed transceivers: Agilester GLC-SX-MM-AS (fiber) and GLC-T-AS (metal) in PMA mode, BlackBox SFP, 1250-Mbps Copper (metal) in SGMII mode.
CN7
Connector for JTAG protocol. PC may download the FPGA firmware via USB-JTAG downloader by Xilinx. Refer to Practical Usage section.
SW1

The DIP switch which defines the modes.

  • bit4 must be ON for user-defined IP address mode, and OFF for force defalt mode (IP=192.168.10.16).
  • bit3 selects PMA/SGMII interfaces for ethernet transceivers. It must be OFF for PMA: 1000Base-SX (fiber) and some 1000Base-Tx (metal) transceivers; it must be ON for other 1000Base-Tx (metal) transceivers using SGMII.
  • bit1-2 are connected to FPGA, but not defined.
SW2
User defined push switch. It generates a pulse to send to FPGA. In the exisitng firmware, it causes the highest reset action. The pulse logic is negative, changing from 1 to 0 if pressed.
LED

Status monitor of FPGA.

  • bit4 flashes in 1Hz as a heart beat.
  • bit3 connected to gmii_isolate. (never seen it is ON.)
  • bit2 connected to mii_complete. (ON when SFP is configured ?)
  • bit1 is on when TCP connection opens (SiTCP_ACTIVE).
J2
Test pins 1-8 from FPGA. Not used in the existing firmware.
Power (CN1)
Ch1 +5V-A (passed to analog board)
Ch3 +5V-D 300 mA
Ch5 +1.8V-D 600 mA (if the line is long, voltage may be raised at the power supply)
Ch2,4,6 Ground.
FUSE (F1,2,3)
5 mA fuses. Surface mount SF-0603F500, or equivalent.

Kalliope Analog boards

Kalliope analog boards are a 80 mm x 80 mm bare print circuit board (PCB). The catalog numbers in GND Ltd. are shown below.

There are two types of input cables: Nihon IF (NIF) pin connectors or KEL 16-channel thin coax cables. There are also two types of ASICs: VOLUME2012 and VOLUME2014. The resulting Analog boards are 2 x 2 = 4 types.

The NIF-cable type analog boards are designed with its shield as the High-voltage (HV) power supply to the detector board. The signal and the HV grounds to the detector board is through the frame electric connections. Do not detach the frame ground of the detector boards from the analog board when using NIF-cable type analog boards.

The KEL-cable type analog boards uses two thin coax cables for one detector channel. One is for the signal and the other is for the HV. The shields of the KEL coax cables are designed as the ground. Detector boards may be detached from the analog board.

Behavior of Amplifier, Shaper and Discriminator (ASD) of the analog boards are controled by Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) settings provided from the digital board.

Common Specifications

  • Input ports
    • 32 channel of single-end detector inputs
      • NIF pin connector hole x 32, or
      • KEL 20 coax (40 pole) connector SSL00-40S x 2.
    • 1 lemo for +HV input (center plus).
  • Output and control ports
    • 32 channels of single-end outputs and 6 channels of control lines (Hirose FX2-80S-1.27DSL).
  • Power supply
    • DC +5 V, supplied through the digital board A&B 40 pins.
  • Dimensions
    • A picture and dimension of a Kalliope analog board are shown below. The hole size, positions and the connector locations are common in all analog board series.
kalliope-a-dimension
Figure 3: Universal dimensions of Kalliope analog boards. The position of 6-ø3.5mm holes, HV-lemo and flat signal connector is the same.
HV IN (CN1)
Detector high voltage (+HV) input in Lemo, distributed to each detector. Multi Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) from Hamatsu Photonics is assumed for the detectors. Never turn on HV before power-on the board. The ASICs will be damaged.
Digital I/O (CN2)
Accommordates 32-channel digital outputs, 6-channel control lines and a power suply to/from the digital board. The connector is a half-pitch 80 poles (Hirose FX2-80S-1.27DSL). The channel assignments vary between Volume2012- and Volume2014-based boards, and will be described later. The inputs and control lines are single-ended in LVTTL2.5 level. Do not monitor digital out with 50 Ohm scopes. The ASICs may be damaged. A&B 40 are the power line to the analog board (+5V).
Signal Inputs (32 x NIF)
The NIF-type boards GN1186-4 and GN1579-1 are equipped with 32 pairs of pin connector holes, where NIF pin connector coax cables will be connected. The shield of the coax cable goes to Cn (cathode: see below), carrying the HV to the detector, and the center of the coax goes to An (anode: see below) to detect the signal. The ground has to be connected via the frame ground between analog and detector board.
Signal Inputs (2 x KEL)
The KEL-type boards GN1372-1 and GN1635-1 are equipped with 2 of KEL 20 coax cable connectors SSL00-40S. The inputs Cn and An (see below) are independently given to the center of the coax, so that the shield of the coax cables remain the ground. The detector board may be detached from the analog board.
NIF-in
Figure 4: Circuit diagram for one input channel. A1 and C1 corresponds to the anode and cathode of the detector (MPPC). R102 and C90 makes a noise filter for the HV fed to C1 and R30 is the terminator for the signal from A1. C128 effectively grounds the terminator in high frequencies (signals). R103 (R146) pulls up (down) the signal DC level and shifts the signal ground level by flowing a DC current (determined by BiasDAC) from the ASICin. This is effectively a HV fine control.

Volume2012-based boards

The ASICs are two of Volume2012. There are two boards available, depending on the input cable type (NIF-type: GN1186-4, KEL-type: GN1372-1). Picture is shown below for the NIF-type board.

kalliope-a-photo
Figure 5: Picture of Kalliope analog board, NIF x Volume2012 type (GN1186-4) is shown
  • Power consumption
    • internal voltage is 2.5V (ASIC), generated from +5V input.
    • static: 60 mA @+5V
    • dynamic: depends on the hit rate?
Digital I/O (CN2)
The channel assignment is 32-17 (16-1) to the even numbers of A2-A32 (B2-B32) of the connector, being consistent with the digital board pin assignments. Odd numbers in A&B1-31 are the signal grounds. The six lines A&B 34,36,38 are reserved for the control lines, as CLB(A34), CLKIN(B34), SDI_1(A36) and SDI_2(A38). SDO's are assigned to B36 and B38, but never been used.
Threshold DAC (ThDAC) resolution resistors R25 and R54
There are two versions exist: R25=R54=20 kOhm and 100 kOhm. The former (red mark) yields 50mV/bit (x16 steps) threshold notch at discriminator, and the latter (white mark) 10mV/bit. Since the Amplifier gain is either x10 or x100 (selectable by the CTRL bits on DAC), the input equivalent threshold threhold notch is 5 or 0.5 mV/bit (red) or 1 or 0.1 mV/bit (white), respectively. To distinguish the setting, a round sticker with the color is attached, but not necessarily.
R25&R54 @Discriminator @Input (x10) @Input (x100) Descriotion (mark) ThDAC steps
20 kOhm 50 mV/bit 5 mV/bit 0.5mV/bit low resolution (red) 4 bits = 16
100 kOhm 10 mV/bit 1 mV/bit 0.1mV/bit high resolution (white) 4 bits = 16
Threshold voltage base VR1 (TP1) and VR2 (TP3)
Set the voltages to 0.5V, which serves as the base for the threshold level in the discriminators in ASIC-1 (Ch1-16) and ASIC-2 (Ch17-32). Adjust later with a threshold DAC (ThDAC) scan.
The HV bias control by BiasDAC is about +0.4 V / -0.4 V in 16 steps.
Input polarity selector TP19(G)-20(V)-21(S) and TP22(G)-23(V)-24(S)
For positive leading edge singal input (default), leave them open, or connect S-G; only when negative leading edge signal should be handled, connect S-V.
Digital pulse monitor TP2 and TP4
Ch1 and Ch17 digital output may be monitored by this testpoint. Use 1MOhm probe to check this signal. If 50Ohm probe is used the ASIC may be damaged. Volume2012 digital outputs are in negative logic: logical 0 is 2.5V and logical 1 is 0V. This requires detection of negative leading edge for the timing signal.
Analog monitor AOUT1-32
Analog monitor outs may be observed by 50 Ohm probe ??? at these half-pitch test pins. There is a converter board for a full pitch test pin (Tsuji Denshi ?????).

Black edition of GN1186-4

This is a special edition of Volume2012 board, with the printed circuit board in black. This edition omits HV connector and short-circuited to the ground. The input becomes An=signal and Cn=ground, as for usual voltage signals. External preamp voltage signal may be fed into the Kalliope inputs.

Volume2014-based boards

There are two boards available, depending on the input cable type (NIF-type: GN1579-1, KEL-type: GN1635-1). Picture is shown below for the NIF-type board.

kalliope-a2-photo
Figure 6: Picture of Kalliope analog board, NIF x Volume2014 (GN1579-1) is shown. This is the board type currently implimented to S1/D1 general-purpose spectromters.
  • Power consumption
    • internal voltages are 1.8V (ASIC) and 3.3V (LVCMOS driver/receiver), generated from +5V input.
    • static: 200 mA@+5V.
    • dynamic: depends on the hit rate?
Digital I/O (CN2)
Due to the pattern arrangement on the PCB, the channel assignment is different from Volume2012 family: ch32-1 are assigned to the even numbers of B2,A2 ... B32,A32 of the 80 pin connector. Odd numbers in A&B1-31 are the signal grounds. FPGA firmware takes care of the channel number swaps. The control lines are CLKI(A34), SDI(A36) and STRI(A38). The B-series (34,36,38) are not used.
Threshold DAC (ThDAC) resolution resistor R160
There are two versions exist: R160=3.9 kOhm and 39 kOhm. The former (red mark) yields 15mV/bit (x64 steps) threshold notch at discriminator, and the latter (white mark) 1.5mV/bit. Since the Amplifier is x10 gain, the input equivalent threshold notch is 1.5 mV/bit (red) or 0.15 mV/bit (white), respectively. To distinguish the setting, a round sticker with the color is attached, but not necessarily.
R160 @Discriminator @Input (x10) Descriotion (mark) ThDAC steps
3.9 kOhm 15 mV/bit 1.5 mV/bit low resolution (red) 6 bits = 64
39 kOhm 1.5 mV/bit 0.15 mV/bit high resolution (white) 6 bits = 64
Threshold voltage base VTHREF (TP35)
Set the voltage to 1.05V. This voltage serves as the base for the threshold level in the discriminator.
Offset voltage base VOFF (TP36)
Set the voltage to 0.9V.
VRS voltage base VRSREF (TP37)
Set the voltage to 0.25V. This voltage serves as the base for the VRS level in the pole-zero cancellation circuit of the shaper.
Detector voltage base VDETREF (TP38)
Set the voltage to 1.5V.
The HV bias control by BiasDAC is about +0.2 V / -0 V in 64 steps (not as good as Volume2012).
Analog monitor AOUT1-32 (TP1-32)
Analog monitor outs may be observed by 50 Ohm ?? scope at these half-pitch test pins.
Control signals SDO and STRO (TP33,34)
Test pins are equipped for serial control line outputs SDO and STRO.

FGATI-test boards

Frontend for GHz Application using Trans Impedance amplifier (FGATI) is the next generation ASIC for detector signals, developed at KEK. The Open-It page for FGATI has information about 4ch and 16ch ASICs and the test boards (GN1809-) mostly for version 4. The test boards GN1809-1 to -4 was designed to be controlled by SOY board by Bee Beans Technology. To replace SOY by Kalliope digital (GN1078-3), a power and signal interface board (GN1818-1) was successfully developed and functional. Fot the version 1 test board (only), GN1901A-1 was developed as the daughter board connecting to a KEL-type detector board (e.g. GN1629-1). See photo below for the complete set.

kalliope-a3-photo
Figure 7: Picture of FGATI test board version 1 (GN1809-1), daughter board (GN1901A-1), KEL cable connected detector board (GN1629-1), interface board (GN1818-1) and Kalliope digital board (GN1078-3). This is a confirmed set to control and take time measurements of outputs from FGATI 4ch ASIC.

The confirmed combinations are:

GN1629-1 =KEL= GN1901A-1 + GN1809-1(4ch  FGATI-test board v.1) - GN1818-1(interface) - GN1078-3(Kalliope digital)
        (probably ?)       GN1809-4(16ch FGATI-test board v.4) - GN1818-1(interface) - GN1078-3(Kalliope digital)

The version 5 FGATI test board GN1809-5 does not have the connector for SOY, and the ASIC controlling lines have to be supplied to a header pin. Also, the signal input arrangement is different from that for version 1, so that the daughter board (GN1901A-1) could not be used as it is. The test setup is under development as of year 2021.

Kalliope Detector boards

Cubic scintilator boards

For general-purpose µSR spectrometers at D1/S1 beamlines, MLF, J-PARC, 1cm cubic scintillator blocks are used for the positron detections. The corresponding detector board is GN1274-2 (NIF-type), and later developed is GN1347-2 (KEL-type). These boards are compatible with 1.3 x 1.3 mm surface mount MPPCs (e.g. S12571-050P-01(X) or S13360-1350PE), which is placed at the tail of wave-length shifting fibers (Y11) embedded in 10x10x12 mm scintillaors (BC403). A board for larger-size scintillators (10x20x12 mm) GN1817-1 was later designed for U1A-Ultra Slow Muon (USM) spectrometer.

kalliope-s0-diagram
Figure 8: Diagram of Cubic Scintillators and the board. MPPCs are shown with leads (S10362-11-050P), but later replaced by surface mount type: S12571-050P-01(X) or S13360-1350PE.
kalliope-s1-dimension
Figure 9: Dimension of Cubic Scintillator board, NIF-type (GN1274-2) is shown. The size is 92 x 44 mm. This is the board type currently implimented to S1/D1 general-purpose spectromters.
kalliope-s2-dimension
Figure 10: Dimension of Cubic Scintillator board, KEL-type (GN1347-2) is shown. The size is 97 x 31 mm. KEL connectors are mounted on the back. This board is manufactured for a possible upgrade of S1/D1 spectrometers, but have not been implimented as of year 2021.
kalliope-s3-dimension
Figure 11: Dimension of USM Scintillator board, KEL-type (GN1817-1) is shown. The size is 96 x 68 mm. KEL connectors are mounted on the back. This board is manufactured for U1A-Ultra Slow Muon Microscope (USMM) spectrometer, with double-size scintillator blocks 10x20x12? mm.

Scinti-fiber boards for CYCLOPS

The 5 Tesla high-field spectrometer CYCLOPS required scintilation fiber (Kuraray) as the positron detector. With the magnetic field parallel to the muon beam, the spiral motion of the positrons are opposite between upstream and downstream. The corresponding scitillation fiber boards are GN1434-1 and GN1456-1. One KEL connector is installed on the back, as shown in the photo below.

kalliope-f1-photo
Figure 12: Photo of a sctillation fiber board, GN1434-1 is shown.
kalliope-f1-dimension
Figure 13: Dimension of sctillation fiber board, GN1434-1 is shown. The size is 110 x 19 mm. This is the board type currently implimented to CYCLOS high-field spectromter.
kalliope-f2-dimension
Figure 14: Dimension of sctillation fiber board, GN1456-1 is shown, which is a mirror image of GN1434-1. This is also the board type currently implimented to CYCLOS.

Scinti-fiber board for trackers

The most compact scintifiber board used for trackers is GN1629-1. It is based on GN1434-1, the CYCLOPS scinti-fiber board, but made it as compact as possible, keeping the same MPPC arrangements.

kalliope-t1-dimension
Figure 15: Dimension of sctillation fiber tracker board, GN1629-1 is shown. The size is 42 x 10 mm. This is the board currently implimented to muon/positron fiber trackers. This is the most compact 16-channel board for 1.3 x 1.3 mm MPPCs. One KEL connector is installed on the back.

NIM-TDC module

This GN1245-1 is a NIM module with 32 NIM-level inputs to a Kalliope digital board. This TDC module is used to record the timing signals from conventional detectors such as Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). The 6-channel ASIC controling lines are re-configured to operate 3-NIM IN and OUT signals. These NIM IN/OUT are used to record the status of the apparatus to the list-mode data, or signal the apparatus about the DAQ status. The NIM INs are recorded as the "Keyword" field in the header of the list-mode data. NIM OUT3 is configured to output TCP-open of this module (=DAQ ready), and makes it possible to allign the trigger timing among all the Kalliope devices of the experiment. Since this module has different functions with regard to the NIM-IN/OUTs, the NIM-TDC firmware is different from Volume2012/2014 firmware. Details are explained in Firmware section.

kalliope-n1-dimension
Figure 16: Front and rear panel of NIM-TDC, GN1245-1 is shown.

NIM-OUT module

This GN1474-1 module makes it possible to monitor the analog board digital outputs in NIM level. Signals for odd number channels (starts with 1) comes out to the front panel lemos. The behavior of the Kalliope analog/digital boards are the same with the standalone system, so as the firmware being common to the Volume2012/2014 systems.

kalliope-o1-dimension
Figure 17: Front and rear panel and inside of NIM-OUT, GN1474-1 is shown.

Miscellaneous

Kalliope DC power supply (Tsuji Denshi T3714-01)

T3714-01
Figure 18: Tsuji Denshi DC power supply for Kalliope. Drives two Volume2014 sets or three Volume2012 sets.

Nihon IF cables (2508AT-2508AT SB3608BK)

http://www.nif-kk.co.jp

KEL cables (SSL20-40SSB series)

LVDS-LVTTL conversion board (GN1220-1)

connects EASIROC degital outs to Kalliope.

NIF to KEL conversion board (GN1621-1)

converts NIF-input analog boards to KEL-input.

KEL-Flat cable conversion board (GN1708-1)

converts (NIM)EASIROC input flat cable to KEL connector.

FGATI-test board (GN1809-1)

FGATI test board ver.1.

FGATI-Kalliope interface board (GN1818-1)

FGATI test board ver.1 to Kalliope interface board.